~Eratkan Ukhuwah Gerakkan Islah~
The Moment of Awakening A Hungarian Orientalist Finds Islam By Yasser Hejazi
The journey of Abdul-Karim Germanus (formerly known as Julius Germanus) to Islam transformed his life forever. He once described his conversion as his "moment of awakening."
Germanus was a university professor in Hungary who spent half of his life defending Islam and the Arabic language. After having freed himself from the troubles of youth and the oppression of traditions, he became attracted to Islam.The Beginning of the Path
Germanus was born in Budapest, Hungary in 1884 and was raised as a Christian. Immediately after graduating from the University of Budapest, he decided to specialize in the Turkish language. So he traveled to the University of Istanbul in 1903 to study Turkish. In only two years, he was able to master the Turkish language and excelled in speaking, reading, and writing it.
During his time at the University of Istanbul, he came across an exegesis of the Qur'an in Turkish. This marked the beginning of his transformation and his interest in Islam and the Qur'an. The exegesis enabled him to understand Islam from the original sources, and he saw in the various exegeses which were available in several languages, the fallacies which were taught about Islam by Christian missionaries.
Motivated to learn the truth about Islam, he decided to conduct research in which he compared what the Christians were writing about Islam to what was really written in the Qur'an and Sunnah. He also endeavored to read Turkish translations of Hadith in order to study the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad from authentic sources.Back to Europe
Germanus returned to Hungary from Istanbul and found his former professors, who were reputable Orientalists, speaking falsely about Islam. He argued with them about the true character of Prophet Muhammad and the many hadiths attributed to him. After clashing with his professors, Germanus decided to study the Arabic language after he found that Turkish was full of many Arabic words. He pursued Arabic and soon became proficient in it, he then went on to master Persian.
He excelled in the study of languages, and, in 1912, was appointed professor of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish as well as Islamic history at the Hungarian Royal Academy in Budapest. He was later appointed to the Department of Oriental Studies at the University of Economics in Budapest.
After working for a short time at the University of Budapest, the Bengali-Indian poet, Gurudev Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), one of Bengal's greatest figures, invited Germanus in 1928 to teach as the chair of Islamic Studies of Visva-Bharati University in Shantiniketan, Bengal. He stayed in India for several years and it was there he publicized his conversion to Islam in the Great Delhi Mosque. Henceforth, he was known Abdul-Karim. He was given the privilege of being able to give the weekly Friday sermon at the mosque.Friendships with Poets
Germanus' great desire to learn more about Islam and Muslims led him to meet one of the most prominent Muslim poets of the time. He enjoyed a friendship with the famous Pakistani Muslim poet, Muhammad Iqbal. They would have long conversations, delving into important issues facing Muslims. They also would discuss the scholarship of Orientalists and the activities of Christian missionaries.
Germanus and Iqbal differed over their views on missionary activities. Whereas Germanus believed that the propaganda spread by European Christian missionaries was a problem, Iqbal believed that the problem lay in Muslims' lack of unity and opposition to anti-Islam missionaries. Their long dialogue ended with the problem of Orientialism and the shortcomings of Orientalist scholarship.
Germanus also formed a strong relationship with the famous Egyptian writer, Mahmoud Timour. Timour wrote about Germanus' journey to Islam in one of his books:
When I [Timour] was speaking to him, I asked [Germanus], "What is the story of your conversion, Hajji? Germanus combed his fingers through his beard and then responded, "It was a moment of awakening for me because Islam is the true religion. Enlightened minds and free thinkers find tolerance in Islam, in its doctrine and in the Shari`ah. They find truth is Islam which convinces them of its validity. With Islam, free thinkers set themselves loose from the oppression of traditions. I know many intellectuals who, as soon as they free themselves of the troubles of youth and the oppression of traditions, secretly become Muslim and conceal their faith and submission to Allah in the depths of their hearts." Timour responded, saying the following: His answer did not cure or entice me with its excessive details, I asked him "Can't you tell me about what attracted you to Islam? "He became less agitated and said, "One thing attracted me to Islam, it is the essence of all things, and that thing is the religion of purity, the religion of cleanliness, of both the body and spirit, and social behavior and manners and the human feeling.
Germanus' love of the Arabic language brought him to Cairo, Egypt, where he furthered his studies of classical Arabic. When he first arrived to the port city of Alexandria, he was surprised with the way the locals responded to him. They would laugh when he spoke Arabic because he was speaking classical Arabic! When they spoke to him in their colloquial dialect, he couldn't make out what they were saying. Germanus became very angry and screamed out, "I am here in order to learn the language of the Qur'an from you! Why do you respond with laughter and ridicule?"
Germanus found himself back in the University of Budapest and worked as a professor of history and civilization for more than 40 years. He published several research papers calling for the revival of classical Arabic in the Arab world. He wanted to bring back classical Arabic, which had died out just as Latin had in Europe. He dreamed of a time when all Arab countries would speak the same form of Arabic that would tie Arabs to their rich heritage and history.
Throughout his academic career, Germanus waged a war with European Orientalists who supported colonialism. He would use evidence and rational arguments, although he was confronted with much antagonism. As a result of his disputes with Orientalists, he was fired from the university on the grounds that his attitude was not appropriate.
Despite mounting opposition against Germanus, his students sided with him and his ideas. They praised his works and saw that his work had huge influence throughout academia in both the West and the Muslim world. Because of this support, he was able to continue in his position as a professor of history despite protest from Orientalists colleagues.
Mahmoud Timour, Germanus' good friend, wrote three plays in colloquial Egyptian Arabic that he dedicated to Germanus to inform him, in a courteous way, that he had written in the colloquial Egyptian dialect in order to educate Egyptians and to raise their level of culture.
Germanus responded to Timour, saying, "The colloquial dialect is only a modern language, it cannot express deep sentiments and emotions, nor can it reveal our innermost feelings. On the other hand, classical Arabic can best express our most minute feelings of yearning to perfection."
Germanus was calling for Timour to stop writing in colloquial Arabic and to work on refining his skills in writing literature. Eventually, Timour became a member of the Academy of Arabic Language in Cairo and improved his literary writing skills in classical Arabic.
Mahmoud Timour was fascinated by Germanus' personality and sought inspiration from him for his story, "The One Who Asked Allah for Help," in a collection of short stories called Behind the Veil. The story narrated the journeys of a traveler who went to Cairo, lived in the neighborhood of Al-Hussein, and adopted an Egyptian lifestyle. He would wear a long white robe and stroll the neighborhood in his flowing Arab clothing. He was always anxious to prayer Fajr in the mosque and to hear the voice of the muezzin (the man who calls for the prayer) in the silence of the night.A Lifetime of Activity
In the mid-20th century, scholarly organizations in the Arab world were looking to catch up with the modern world. They hoped to make more connections with Western scholars and so they elected Germanus to the Scholarly Organization of Iraq in 1962 as an overseas member, he was also elected as a member of the Arabic language academies in both Cairo and Damascus.
Back home in Hungary, Germanus endeavored to bring together all of the Muslims in his country, Muslims only numbered between 1,000 to 2,000 at that time. He established an organization which ran Muslims' affairs in Hungary and which was able to convince the Hungarian government to recognize Islam as one of the official state religions.
In addition, Germanus was one of the few Europeans to ever have visited the holy sites in Makkah and Madinah when he traveled from Egypt to Saudi Arabia in 1935. He wrote a memoir of his journey to the holy sites in Hungarian called, Allahu Akbar, which was translated into several languages. He went on Hajj for a second time in 1939.
Germanus was married to a European woman who was Christian at the time of their marriage. However, his wife also eventually converted to Islam with the help of the famous author and academic Ahmed Abd Al-Ghafur Attar.
Germanus can be credited with having motivated the Egyptian writer Muhammad Huseyn Haykal to perform Hajj. Haykal recorded memoirs of his trip in In the House of Revelation, and in the introduction, he wrote the following:
I was fiddling with the radio signals on different stations until I reached the Budapest broadcast. And the very first thing I heard from the broad was the voice of the presenter say, "I was in the middle of a huge crowd of people who were circumambulating the Ka`bah. All around me I heard the phrase, 'Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar.' And when I finished the circumambulation, I walked between the two mounts of Safaa and Marwa."
So I [Haykal] said to myself, "Is this European professor, who is talking about the truth of Islam, more truthful and strong-willed than I am that he has already visited the sacred sites?
Germanus wrote about Islam in various European publications. In one article he wrote:
I am a European man who didn't find my home in being enslaved to gold, power, or domination. I was influenced by the simplicity of Islam and in the respect it had in the eyes of Muslims. … The Muslim world will keep its true essence through its spirituality and its supreme example. And Islam always preserves its foundations of freedom, fraternity, and equality between all human beings.
He also wrote the following in another article:
Islam transcends by elevating humans from an animal state to the height of refined civilization and I hope, or rather I expect, that Islam will once more be able to achieve this miracle at the time when great darkness will surround us.
Germanus wrote many books, including The Greek, Arabic Literature in Hungarian, Lights of the East, Uncovering the Arabian Peninsula, Between Intellectuals, The History of Arabic Literature, The History of the Arabs, Modern Movements in Islam, Studies in the Grammatical Structure of the Arabic Language, Journeys of Arabs, Pre-Islamic Poetry, Great Arabic Literature, Guidance From the Light of the Crescent (a personal memoir), An Adventure in the Desert, Arab Nationalism, Allahu Akbar, Mahmoud Timour and Modern Arabic Literature, The Great Arab Poets, and The Rise of Arab Culture.
Germanus passed away on November 7, 1979 after having served the cause of Islam and Muslims for nearly 50 years.
** Yasser Hejazi is an Egyptian researcher and journalist
Maa ashobani min hasanatin faminallah...wamaa ashobani min sayyiatin famin nafsi (segala yg baik tu dari Allah dan yg buruk tu dari diriku)
posted by scouser at 9:13 PM
TINDAKAN guru memukul adalah tidak wajar walaupun berada dalam keadaan tertekan dengan disiplin pelajar, tidak mendengar kata dan beban kerja yang bertambah.
Guru perlu mengubah paradigma. Mereka harus sedar, profesion perguruan hari ini sangat mencabar dan memerlukan beberapa perubahan pendekatan dalam mendekati pelajar bermasalah.
Pelajar sekolah degil dan tidak berdisiplin kerana dirangsang faktor luaran, termasuk didikan, pendedahan dan kawalan di rumah serta di luar kawalan guru.
Apa yang boleh dilakukan ialah menggunakan pendekatan memberi galakan dan pujian. Beberapa kajian di Barat menunjukkan guru yang memberi pujian ke atas perbuatan positif pelajar berjaya meningkatkan prestasi pelajar bermasalah dari segi akademik dan disiplin walaupun sedikit.
Pendekatan sama boleh dilakukan di rumah. Ibu boleh memberi galakan atau pujian berpatutan setiap anak menyiapkan tugas atau kerja sekolah. Perkara itu walaupun pada peringkat awal tidak dilakukan sepenuhnya. Anak tadi akan terangsang dan merasakan dirinya dihargai setiap kali menyempurnakan tugas. Secara beransur-ansur prestasi kerjanya akan meningkat.
Mengenai anak malas menjawab soalan yang memerlukan dia berfikir, kita kena sama-sama fikirkan bagaimana mereka boleh teruja dengan menjawab soalan yang memerlukannya berfikir.
Pertama perlu budayakan berfikir bersama-sama anak. Berfikir banyak faedahnya, termasuk merangsang minda, menjadikan seseorang itu lebih tajam fikirannya dan lebih ceria menghadapi kehidupan. Ini sebenarnya nikmat yang hanya dirasakan oleh mereka yang berfikir.
Cuba bersama anak menjawab soalan atau masalah Matematik yang memerlukan berfikir. Tunjukkan betapa nikmat yang dikecapi apabila berjaya menjawab soalan selepas melalui proses berfikir yang meskipun mencabar, tetapi memberi pulangan.
Pulangan jangka pendek ialah kita mendapat kepuasan menjawab soalan dengan menggunakan kekuatan minda. Pulangan jangka panjang ialah menjadikan otak lebih tajam dan cekap dalam menyelesaikan masalah.
Mungkin puan boleh guna contoh yang digunakan saintis dalam kajian primate (beruk cimpanzi). Seekor cimpanzi dalam kurungan diberikan sebiji pisang yang diletakkan di luar kurungan, tetapi cukup jauh untuk dicapai. Haiwan itu juga diberikan dua batang kayu. Satu kayu pendek dalam kurungan, tetapi tidak cukup panjang untuk mencapai pisang. Satu kayu lagi lebih panjang di luar kurungan.
Apa yang dilakukan oleh cimpanzi tadi ialah menggunakan kayu pendek untuk mencapai kayu yang lebih panjang. Dengan kayu yang lebih panjang itu, ia berjaya mencapai pisang tadi. Ini satu contoh di mana haiwan itu menggunakan 'fikirannya' untuk menyelesaikan masalah berkaitan dengan kehidupannya.
Bayangkan apa yang bakal terjadi jika ia malas menggunakan 'fikirannya'. Pasti ia akan kelaparan.
Kemampuan berfikir kita tentu lebih hebat daripada cimpanzi. Kita pasti akan mengagumi betapa akal fikiran yang dikurniakan Tuhan kepada kita sangat hebat sehingga dapat menyelesaikan masalah yang jauh lebih kompleks.
Galakkan berfikir sebagai satu tanda kesyukuran ke atas anugerah Allah paling mahal kepada kita yang bergelar insan.
Mengenai masalah anak kedua puan, mungkin gejala memarahi pembantu rumah adalah manifestasi daripada rasa rendah dirinya. Dia meluahkan rasa tidak puas hatinya kepada pembantu rumah. Kenapa pembantu rumah? Mungkin dia berasa lebih selamat daripada memarahi adik-adiknya. Risiko memarahi pembantu rumah mungkin tidak akan mendapat teguran daripada ibu bapa berbanding menegur adik-adiknya.
Apa yang boleh dilakukan adalah terangkan bahawa pembantu rumah adalah sebahagian daripada 'keluarga' kita. Peranannya cukup besar kerana banyak membantu kerja rumah demi kesejahteraan keluarga.
Ajarkan juga akhlak menghormati orang yang lebih tua. Pembantu rumah sebagai orang tua wajib dihormati.
Dalam hal ini, anak diajar supaya bersopan santun dan berbudi bahasa ketika hendak meminta sesuatu daripada pembantu rumah.
Ingatkan dia bahawa pembantu rumah walaupun digaji oleh ibu dan ayah, tidak bermakna anak-anak boleh berlagak seperti tuan terhadapnya.
Mengenai anak yang mempunyai masalah membaca, pada pandangan saya membaca adalah kemahiran dan perlu dipupuk. Berikan dia bahan bacaan ringan yang boleh menanam minat membaca dan membacalah bersamanya.
Elok juga dibawa berjumpa pakar untuk memastikan anak puan tidak mengalami masalah kesihatan seperti autisme dan lembam kerana memang ada masalah kesihatan yang berkait dengan masalah membaca yang lambat.
Maa ashobani min hasanatin faminallah...wamaa ashobani min sayyiatin famin nafsi (segala yg baik tu dari Allah dan yg buruk tu dari diriku)
posted by scouser at 5:32 PM
History of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt by Wikipedia, US
In 1928, six Egyptian workers employed by British military camps in Isma'iliyya, in the Suez Canal Zone in Egypt, visited Hassan al-Banna, a young schoolteacher who they had heard preach in mosques and coffee-houses on the need for an Islamic rewnewal. "Arabs and Muslims have no status and no dignity," they said. "They are no more than mere hirelings belonging to the foreigners.... We are unable to perceive the road to action as you perceive it...." They therefore asked him to become their leader; he accepted, founding the Society of the Muslim Brothers. (Mitchell 1969, 8; Lia 1998, 36; Carre 1983, 11)History of the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt (1928-1938)Early Development
In 1928, six Egyptian workers employed by British military camps in Isma'iliyya, in the Suez Canal Zone in Egypt, visited Hassan al-Banna, a young schoolteacher who they had heard preach in mosques and coffee-houses on the need for an Islamic rewnewal. "Arabs and Muslims have no status and no dignity," they said. "They are no more than mere hirelings belonging to the foreigners.... We are unable to perceive the road to action as you perceive it...." They therefore asked him to become their leader; he accepted, founding the Society of the Muslim Brothers. (Mitchell 1969, 8; Lia 1998, 36; Carré 1983, 11)
Banna and his followers began by starting an evening school. In its first few years, the Society was focused on Islamic education, with an emphasis on teaching students how to implement an ethos of solidarity and altruism in their daily lives, rather than on theoretical issues. The General Inspector of Education was greatly impressed, particularly by the eloquent speeches of the working-class members of the Brotherhood. Banna's deputy was a carpenter, and the appointment of people from the lower classes to leading positions became a hallmark of the Brotherhood. (Lia 1998, 39)
The Society's first major project was the construction of a mosque, completed in 1931, for which it managed to raise a large amount of money while carefully maintaining its independence from potentially self-interested donors. In the same year, the Society began to receive favourable attention in the press, and a Cairo branch was founded. (Lia 1998, 40-42)
In 1932, Banna was transferred to Cairo at his request, and the organisation's headquarters were moved there. In addition to handling the administration of the Society, Banna gave evening lectures on the Qur'an for "the poor of the district around the headquarters who were 'without learning and without the will for it'". (Mitchell 1969, 10-12)
Over the next decade, the Society grew very rapidly. From three branches in 1931, it grew to have 300 across Egypt in 1938; thanks to an unorthodox ideology with mass appeal, and to effective strategies for attracting new members, it had become a major political opposition group with a highly diverse membership. (Lia 1998, 53, 152, 154; Mitchell 12-13; Carré 1983, 21)Ideological Innovations
The Brotherhood initially resembled an ordinary Islamic welfare society. In the early 1930s, its welfare activities included small-scale social work among the poor, building and repairing mosques and establishing a number of Qur'an schools (whose role in teaching children to read and write was important in country where 80% of the population was illiterate), setting up small workshops and factories, and organising the collection and distribution of zakat (the Islamic alms tax). As the Society grew, it increasingly founded benevolent institutions such as pharmacies, hospitals and clinics for the general public, and launched a program to teach adults to read and write by offering courses in coffee-shops and clubs. (Lia 1998, 109-111)
However, Banna's vision of a new sort of organisation, capable of renewing broken links between tradition and modernity, enabled the Brotherhood to gain a degree of popularity and influence that no welfare society enjoyed. He observed that, in the midst of a flourishing Egyptian civil society and a cultural environment marked by innovations in literature, science and education, religious education had been left behind: the ideas of Islamic religious reformers were not made accessible to the general public, and there was no serious effort to make the history and teachings of Islam comprehensible to the young. He was determined to fill this gap by training a cadre of young, highly motivated preachers equipped with modern teaching methods, independent from the government and the religious establishment, and supported by an effective use of the new mass media. (Lia 53-57)
The Brotherhood's second General Conference, in 1933, authorised the creation of a publishing company and the purchase of a printing press, which was used to print several newspapers during the next decade. Funds were raised by creating a joint stock company in which only members were allowed to buy shares. This approach, which protected the Society's independence from government and from the wealthy by ensuring that its institutions were owned by its members, became its standard means of financing new projects. (Lia 1998, 97-98)
During the 1930s, Banna formulated, and the Society began to put into practice, an Islamic ideology that was unusual in several respects. It was, first of all, an ideology of disenfranchised classes. In a country where most political movements, including liberal and modernist ones, were products of the landed aristocracy and the urban elite, the Brotherhood became the voice of the educated middle and lower middle classes (and to a lesser extent of workers and peasants) and the means by which they demanded political participation. Throughout the decade, the Society placed increasing emphasis on social justice; closing the gap between the classes (and thus restoring the egalitarianism of the early Muslims) became one of its main objectives, and Banna voiced ever stronger criticisms of the upper class and the class system as a whole:
Islam is equal for all people and prefers nobody to others on the grounds of differences in blood or race, forefathers or descent, poverty or wealth. According to Islam everyone is equal... However, in deeds and natural gifts, then the answer is yes. The learned is above the ignorant... Thus, we see that Islam does not approve of the class system.
As this ideology took shape over the next two decades, in the absence of a strong socialist party, the Brotherhood called for nationalisation of industries, substantial state intervention in the economy, a greatly reduced maximum wage for senior civil servants, laws to protect workers against exploitation, an Islamic banking system to provide interest-free loans, and generous social welfare programmes, including unemployment benefits, public housing and ambitious health and literacy programmes, funded by higher taxes on the wealthy. By 1948 the Brotherhood was advocating land reform to enable small farmers to own land. (Lia 1998, 73-74, 81-82, 206-211; Carre 1983, 45-47)
Secondly, Banna's ideology was an attempt to bringing about social renewal through a modern interpration of Islam. In his view, Egypt was torn between two failed value systems: on the one hand, a doctrinaire religious traditionalism (represented by Al-Azhar University), which Banna saw as anachronistic and irrelevant to the urgent problems faced by ordinary people, and on the other hand, an abandonment of all moral values and an economic free-for-all that impoverished the masses and enabled foreign interests to take control of the economy. He argued that Islam should not be confined to the narrow domain of private life, but should rather be applied to the problems of the modern world, and used as the moral foundation of a national renaissance, a thoroughgoing reform of political, economic and social systems. (Lia 1998, 74-77, 224)
The Brotherhood has sometimes been incorrectly described as advocating a blanket rejection of everything Western; in reality, Banna did not hesitate to draw on Western as well as Islamic thought in the pursuit of this modern approach to Islam, using quotations from authors such as René Descartes, Isaac Newton and Herbert Spencer to support his own arguments. He proposed to send Brotherhood journalists to study journalism at the American University in Cairo, and suggested that another group of Brothers attend the School of Social Service, another Western school: "its scientific and practical programme will greatly facilitate the training [of the Brothers] in social welfare works". He was in favour of the teaching of foreign languages in schools: "We need to drink from the springs of foreign culture to extract what is indispensable for our renaissance." His formulation of the concept of nationalism, which was fundamental to the Brotherhood's appeal to young people, combined modern European political concepts with Islamic ones. At the same time, Banna and the Brotherhood decried what they saw as their compatriots' slavish adoration of everything Western and their loss of respect for their own culture and history. (Lia 1998, 76-79)
Banna's concept of nationalism was emphatically Islamic, and its long-term goal was to see all humanity united by the Muslim faith. However, the Society had no clear definition of the sort of political system it wished for. The idea of reviving the Islamic caliphate (which had been abolished by Kemal Atatürk in 1924) was sometimes mentioned in the Brotherhood's publications, but Banna was not in favour of it. Some critics have argued that the Society's ambitions amounted to a kind of fascism, but Banna explicitly rejected the aggressive militarism that rose to power in Germany and Italy in the 1930s, as well as all secular nationalisms (both Arab and European), and condemned racial differentiations as incompatible with Islam. The chief practical consequence of the Brotherhood's Islamic nationalism was an energetic campaign against colonialism in Egypt and other Islamic countries; this was one of the main reasons for the Society's popularity. (Lia 1998, 79-81, 167; Mitchell 1969, 37-42; Carré 1983, 36-43)
The term jihad was a key concept in the Brotherhood's vocabulary: it referred not only to armed struggle to liberate Muslim lands from colonial occupation, but also to the inner effort that Muslims needed to make in order to free themselves from an ingrained inferiority complex and from fatalism and passivity towards their condition. It encompassed the courage to dissent expressed in the maxim "The greatest jihad is to utter a word of truth in the presence of a tyrannical ruler" (a hadith reported by Abu Sa'id al-Khudri) as well as any productive activity that Muslims undertook, on their own initiative, to improve the well-being of the Islamic community. (Lia 1998, 83-84)
In keeping with his call for unity among Muslims, Banna advocated tolerance and goodwill between different forms of Islam. Although the Brotherhood rejected the corruption of some Sufi orders and their excessive glorification of their leaders, a kind of reformed Sufi practice was an important part of the Society's structure. The Society thus tried to bridge the gap between the Salafiyya movement and Sufism, and in the 1940s it tried to promote a rapprochement between Sunni Islam and Shi'a Islam. More generally, the Society insisted that its members must not try to impose their vision of Islam on others. Its General Law of 1934 stated that their actions must always reflect "friendliness and gentleness" and that they were to avoid "bluntness, crudeness and abuses in words or hints". Members who violated these principles (e.g. by pressuring unveiled women to veil themselves) were expelled. (Lia 1998, 82, 85, 114-117)
The Brotherhood's openness to a diversity of Islamic belief and practice represented part of its appeal to young people. Banna deplored the rigid preoccupation of some Salafiyya societies with minor points of religious doctrine; he felt that Sufism and other traditional practices should be welcomed, and that the Brotherhood should focus on basic social and political issues rather than on theological hair-splitting. (Lia 1998, 59-60)A Political Organisation
In the early 1930s the Brotherhood started its Rover Scouts programme (jawwala), in which groups of young men were trained in athletics and an ascetic way of life, carried out charitable work, and toured branches of the Brotherhood to strengthen ties between them. The Rover Scouts, whose uniforms, banners and hymns attracted a great deal of attention, became an important means of recruiting new members, and Banna saw them as a way of introducing young men gradually to religion. (Lia 1998, 101-102, 167-70)
In 1931-32, the Brotherhood underwent an internal crisis; several members challenged Banna's control over the Society's treasury, his general stubbornness, and his insistence on having someone of low social status, a carpenter, as his deputy. Banna's candidate for deputy was overwhelmingly supported by a vote in the Society's General Assembly, and his offer to pay the Society's considerable outstanding debts further strengthened his position, but the conflict persisted until he threatened to expel his opponents from the Brotherhood, at which point they resigned. While some of their complaints about him were certainly justified, the conflict also reflected a more basic disagreement with his conception of the Brotherhood's mission. The secessionists felt that the Society should simply be a traditional Islamic welfare society that local notables could support, and should therefore have open accounts and socially respectable leaders. (Lia 1998, 60-67)
In the aftermath of this conflict, Banna sought to clarify the basis of leadership in the Society, asserting that moral qualities and personal sacrifice were more important than titles, social standing and formal qualifications. In drafting the Society's General Law in 1934, he increased his own authority over the Brotherhood, insisting that authority within the organisation could only be based on complete confidence in the leadership, rejecting calls for increased consultation (shura) and expressing a deep scepticism towards elections, which he felt had shown their failings during the 1931-32 crisis. He also instituted mediation committees to help defuse conflicts as they arose. (Lia 1998, 69-71)
Banna then began to place more emphasis on the Society's political responsibilities concerning a variety of issues such as prostitution, alcohol, gambling, inadequate religious education in schools, the influence of Christian missionaries and, most importantly, the struggle against imperialism. In response to critics who accused the Brotherhood of being a political group, Banna replied that involvement in politics was part of Islam: "Islam does have a policy embracing the happiness of this world." While other Islamic organisations remained studiously apolitical during the great upheavals that characterised the 20s and 30s in Egypt, the Brotherhood attracted large numbers of young, educated Egyptians, particularly students, by encouraging and supporting them in campaigning for political causes. (Lia 1998, 57-58, 67-69, 183-184)
The Brotherhood's first foray into active involvement in politics concerned the conflicts in Palestine between Zionism, Arab nationalism and British rule. Like many other Egyptian associations, the Society raised money to support Palestinian workers on strike during the 1936-39 Palestinian revolt, and organised demonstrations and speeches in their favour. The Society also called for a boycott of Jewish shops in Cairo, on the grounds that Egyptian Jews were financing Zionist groups in Palestine. Articles hostile towards Jews (and not merely towards Zionism) appeared in its newspaper, though other articles upheld the distinction between Jews and Zionists. (Mitchell 1969, 15-16; Lia 1998, 236-244)
In the mid-1930s the Brotherhood developed a formal hierarchical structure, with the General Guide (Banna) at the top, assisted by a General Guidance Bureau and a deputy. Local branches were organised into districts, whose administration had a large measure of autonomy. There were different categories of members, with increasing responsibilities: "assistant", "associate", "worker" and "activist". Membership fees depended on the means of each member, and poor members paid no fees. Promotion through the hierarchy depended on the performance of Islamic duties and on knowledge attained in the Society's study groups. This merit-based system was a radical departure from the hierarchies based on social standing that characterised Egyptian society at the time. (Lia 1998, 98-104)
In 1938, Banna came to the conlusion that local conservative notables had gained too much influence in the Society, and that there were too many members with "empty titles" who did little practical work. To solve these problems, he introduced substantial organisational changes over the next few years; henceforth the branches' executive committees were chosen by the General Guidance Bureau rather than elected, and in 1941 the elected General Assembly was replaced by a smaller appointed body called the Consultative Assembly. However, the Society's structure remained decentralised, so that branches could continue to operate if the police arrested leading members. (Lia 1998, 186-192)
Despite Banna's scepticism concerning elections, manifested in their diminishing role within the Brotherhood, he argued for a kind of democracy when he set out his view of the principles underlying a political Islam in 1938:
When one considers the principles that guide the constitutional system of government, one finds that such principles aim to preserve in all its forms the freedom of the individual citizen, to make the rulers accountable for their actions to the people and finally, to delimit the prerogatives of every single authoritative body. It will be clear to everyone that such basic principles correspond perfectly to the teaching of Islam concerning the system of government. For this reason, the Muslim Brothers consider that of all the existing systems of government, the constitutional system is the form that best suits Islam and Muslims.
Such a system would involve elections, but not political parties; Banna rejected party politics, pointing out that the Egyptian political parties of the time were closed off to all but the elites and had become instruments of British imperial rule. (Lia 202-204; Mitchell 1969, 246-250)References
Carré, Olivier and Gérard Michaud. 1983. Les Frères musulmans : Egypte et Syrie (1928-1982). Paris: Gallimard.
Lia, Brynjar. 1998. The Society of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt: The Rise of an Islamic Mass Movement 1928-1942. Reading, UK: Garnet. ISBN 0863722202.
Mitchell, Richard P. 1969. The Society of the Muslim Brothers. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195084373.
Maa ashobani min hasanatin faminallah...wamaa ashobani min sayyiatin famin nafsi (segala yg baik tu dari Allah dan yg buruk tu dari diriku)
posted by scouser at 6:38 PM
Muslim Brotherhood Initiatives For Reform in Egypt Ikhwanweb - Cairo, Egypt
The Arab and Muslim worlds currently witness continuous and persistent attempts aiming at imposing a change from the outside. These attempts take the form of force sometimes and strong pressures at other times. We are certain these outside do not, in essence or goals, target real reform for the sake of the people, but rather the continuous hegemony of the united States, its control over the areas destiny and fortunes, the superiority of the Zionist entity that usurped Palestine, in addition to implanting regimes more cooperative in carrying out Washington's general strategy.
We believe in Allah's saying
"Verily Allah will not change the (good) condition of a people as long as they do not change their state (at goodness) themselves (by committing sins and by being ungrateful and disobedient to Allah)."
and we do feel we have a legal and national responsibility.
Carrying out our legal duty, as Allah's Prophet (peace be upon him) said "Spreading good advice is a part and parcel of religion," from the perspective of guiding all people to the right and enlightening the whole world with Islam's principles which are the loftiest goal of our call, as Allah Almighty says,
"O you who believed! Bow down, and prostrate yourselves, and worship your lord and do good that you may be successful. And strive hard in Allah’s cause as you ought to strive (with sincerity and with all your efforts that his name should be superior)."
And he also says:
"I only desire reform to the best of my power"
We believe the goal of call is real and comprehensive reform that we all should cooperate to realize – through constitutional and legal channels – in a bid to apply Allah's Shariah (Islamic legal code) which is best for this world and the Hereafter. Allah says:
"Then we have put you O Muhammed (peace be upon him) on a plain way of (Our) commandment (like the one which we commanded Our Messengers before you) (I.e. legal ways and laws of the Islamic Monotheism) So follow you that (Islamic Monotheism and its laws) and follow not the desires of those who know not. (Tafsir At-Tabari) ."
We should, in the beginning, stress some points very clearly.First:
Muslim Brotherhood rejects all of foreign hegemony and denounce all types of foreign interference in Egypt's affairs or those of the Islamic and Arabic regions.Second:
Comprehensive reform is an Islamic and a national demand. Peoples are basically the party concerned with taking the initiative to carry out the kind of reform that aims to achieve their hopes for a dignified, free life, a comprehensive development, freedom, justice, equality and Shura.Third:
The beginning should be political reform which is the starting point to reform the rest of all life walks which witness a speedy decline almost hitting the bottom line in Egypt and Arab as well as Islamic worlds.Forth:
Pioneering such a reform is a task too big to be handled by a government or any individual political power. It's rather a burden for all to shoulder. General national reconciliation that leads to gathering all efforts is the duty of this time, not just for standing up to the plots against the area, but also for getting up from our fall, curing our illnesses and reaching the hoped for development and modernization. The destructive trio of this nation - political stagnation, corruption and social injustice, in addition to scientific and technological backwardness- threatens Egypt's national security, its national standing, Islamic pioneering role and its world role.
Due to official negligence of the national demands presented by the Muslim Brotherhood, along with all national powers, since 1987 so far in more than a document and a paper... in addition, reform doses by the successive governments are so slow that the reform march has been largely delayed during the last decade.
In line with the nation's rejection of any attempt to interfere with our affairs or to temper with our faith or to attack our cultural identity, the Muslim Brotherhood thought they should com forward with this initiative...neither to show off before any foreign or local power nor to embarrass any front – but rather to push a danger threatening the nation and to contribute to reform. This stems from the Muslim Brotherhood's belief in how huge this task is and that it needs all efforts of the loyal sons of nation.
In presenting this initiative to all Egyptians – people, political parties, national powers and government- the Muslim Brotherhood hopes it will be met with due interest, be discussed and talked over by all. This way, such a comprehensive vision of reform may be enriched; cooperation among the sons of the nation may rise up to its ambitions and interests. The duty of this era makes it imperative for all political powers, cultural and intellectual groups, in addition to all those interested in public work, to gather around a wide frame based on the essential pillars of this society. They, moreover, are to cooperate in what's agreed upon – which is, by of difference- which are little – for the best interest of this nation.
We believe that we raise Allah's call, which is the loftiest, call for the idea of Islam, which is the strongest, present the code of the noble Qur’an, the most just.. Allah Almighty says:
"(Our Sibghah (religion) is) the Sibghah (Religion) of Allah (Islam) and which Sibghah (religion) can be better than Allah's? and we are his worshippers. (Tafsir Ibn kathir)"
We believe the whole the whole world, in general, and we, in particular, is in dire need for this call and for anything that works for it and paves the way for it. It is only right to acknowledge that we have gone very far from the true path of Islam which urges us to adopt the useful, take the realms of wisdom if found as these are our targets. We stand no chance of achieving development in any field of our life unless we return to our religion, apply our Shariah (Islamic law), follow the path of science and modern technology and acquire as much knowledge as we can, in light of great religion’s basics and moving from its principles and values.
By this we seek Allah's blessing and satisfaction.Mohamed Mehdi Akef
Chairman of the Muslim BrotherhoodFoundations & Starting Points
We, the Muslim Brotherhood, have a defined mission which we present as a basic concept for reform, out of our inherited right of serious and active participation in the Egyptian political life, being an important part of this free dignified people. This mission is represented collectively in working to establish Allah's Sharaih as we believe it to be the real effective way out of all sufferings and problems, both on the internal front and the external on - be these political, economic, social or cultural. This mission could be achieved through building the Muslim individual, Muslim family, Muslim government and the Muslim state that leads Islamic countries, gather all Muslims, regain Islamic glory, gives lost Muslim land back to its owners and carry the flag of the call to Allah, thus making the world happy via the teachings and right of Islam.
This is our target and this our method, as Muslim Brotherhood.
Therefore, our vision for enabling this reform is pivotal on three major foundations:
1-The nations essentials and values.
2-Givens of reality and conforming with circumstances.
3-Achieving the hopes of the peoples and ambitions of nation.
The frames of Muslim Brotherhood's initiative on the general principles of reform in Egypt are defined in the following main lines: First: In the Field of Building the Egyptian Individual:
The Muslim Brotherhood believes man to be core of the globe. Allah created man and blew into him from his soul, ordered His angles to kneel down before him, taught him all names, subjected all creatures of heaven and picked His messengers from mankind to guide all humans to happiness and right.
Therefore, the happiness of man is the target of any development or progress. Man is also the method of achieving any development or progress. So, it is a must to approve anything that raises the human nature of man and enforces the characteristics that make him better than other creatures.
Faith with its pillars and bases, and good righteous manners are the loftiest man can enjoy as such traits awake conscience, thus preventing illicit and sinful deeds, stressing legal and righteous ones, making man not just carry out his duties but rather perfect them and sacrifice for his causes.
The Egyptian people is religious by nature. However, a cloud of negligence and selfishness has enveloped hearts lately and immediate desires and materialistic values have become dominant negatively affecting the sound Egyptian character. Therefore, it is imperative for any one who seeks reform to attempt the purification of this personality’s essence, rebuilding it, with a special focus on the younger generations, on a base of faith, straightforwardness and good manners. In the absence of this, reform will be futile or like building castles on sand.
Based on the above, in this field, we seek to achieve the following:
- Respect of the nation's foundations represented in believing in Allah, His Angels, Holy books, Messengers, the Hereafter and abiding by Allah's rule.
- Upbringing our children on the principles of faith and righteousness.
- Taking care of the family and protecting it as it is the society’s basic foundation.
- Freedom of call to explain the principles of Islam, its nature and features, most importantly the fact that it is comprehensive in organizing all walks of life.
- Urging people to be committed to worship, righteous behavior and dignified dealings, by all means.
- Filtering the mass media, removing all that contradicts the rulings of Islam and the givens of straight manners.Second: In the Field of Political Reform:
We, Muslim Brotherhood, stress our commitment to the regime as a democratic, constitutional, parliamentarian, presidential one, in the framework of Islamic principles. We also believe in the individual's right to effective political participation as a cornerstone for the independence political decision locally and on the international level. Also, we believe in this nation's right to establishing international relations based on equality, human brotherhood, mutual respect of rights and national sovereignty, respect of international laws and conventions and stressing Peoples' right to self-determination. All these sides of comprehensive reform, and other sides as well, could not be achieved but through the application of democracy which we believe in and are committed to its bases. We call on parties and political powers to support our initiative as a national charter, containing the following items:
- The people is the source of all authorities. No individual, party, group or body is entitled to claim the right to be in power or to continue practicing power unless through sound, free pubic will.
- Power transfer through free general election.
- Freedom of individual believes.
- Freedom of practicing religious rites for all acknowledged Divine religions.
- Freedom of opinion, expressing it and peaceful call for it within the framework of the public system and general traditions and the basic foundations of society. Freedom of possession and using various media methods is necessary to achieve that.
- Freedom of establishing political parties no administrative front has the right to interfere to prevent or limit that freedom. Independent legal authority is the reference for deciding what goes against the public system and general traditions, the basic foundations of society or what is considered a violation of commitment to peaceful work, along with not resorting to violence or threatening to use it.
- Freedom of public mass meetings, the call for them and participating therein within the rules of social safety, non violation of the public security, using, or threatening to use, violence or carrying weapons.
- The right of peaceful demonstration.
- People representation through a freely elected parliament for a certain period following which elections are held again. It is imperative for election laws to include guarantees for its soundness, freedom and the impartiality of those handling it. There must be a belief that the sound system for running the country is the parliamentarian regime that makes the political party with the highest votes, in a free election, forms the government. Each citizen is entitled to participation in parliamentarian election, as long as he/she enjoys the general conditions set by the law to do so.
- Each citizen is entitled to be a member of parliament, as long as he/she enjoys the general conditions set by the law to do so.
- The army has to be excluded from politics to be dedicated for defending the country’s borders. The regime should not seek the army’s help-directly or indirectly – to impose its will and dominance or to threaten the prevention of public freedoms. The Minister of Defense has to a civil politician, like all other Ministers.
- The police and all security bodies of the state are civic jobs as stated by the constitution. Their mission must be limited to preserving the security of the state and society as a whole, not subjected to preserve the entity of government or taken as a tool to suppress the opposition. There must be a system governing their work and their leadership, especially preventing their interference in elections and public activities.
- Defining the powers of the Republic's President, making him a symbol for all Egyptians. He should not preside over any political party and should be completely away from the executive power. The Presidential term must be limited, not exceeding two terms.
- Canceling ill-reputed laws, especially the emergency law, formation of political parties' law, public prosecutor's law of practicing political rights, press law, syndicates' law and others of the likes that created a state of suppression and political stagnation hitting the Egyptian political life. These should be replaced to stress the citizens' freedom, dignity and right to participate in public activity.
- Releasing political detainees and reconsidering jail terms issued by military exceptional courts.
- Eliminating the phenomenon of torture inside police stations state security headquarters and applying the principle of (Police serve the people), in addition to limiting the role of political security in favor of criminal security and preserving the dignity of the Egyptian citizens.
- Aborting the laws that crippled serious work in professional and labor syndicates and adopting bills that lead to the rebirth of syndicates and union work in Egypt, in addition to raising the value of manual professions and creating the suitable atmosphere for them to political and social participation.Third: In the fold of legal Reform:
The legal authority is the pivotal security of the society and the individuals. Its independence is an essential necessity to enable it to carry out its vital missions in establishing the society of justice and right. We believe legal reform to be a milestone of comprehensive reform. We think, it is represented in the following:
1- Guaranteeing the independence of the legal system, in all its degrees and measures, making every effort possible to keep it away any suspicions or doubts, in addition to respecting legal rulings, not playing around them. No one is to be tried but before his/her natural judge. All exceptional courts must be canceled. Military courts must be limited to felonies and offences by. Military personnel only.
2- Separating the investigation and prosecuting authorities. Prosecution must be independent, not under the thumb of the Minister of justice. Any one jailed pending investigation should be entitled to contest the prosecution’s decision before any legal body.
3- Changing the laws and purifying them to be in conformity with the principles of Islamic Shariah as it is the major source of legislation, under the second article of constitution.Fourth: In the field of Electoral Reform:
- keeping the authorities and security forces away from all steps of the electoral process.
- Elections are to be handled and monitored by an electoral committee starting from (preparing) voters' lists, to running elections and counting votes judges should form such committee.
- Legal personnel should supervise the electoral process. The Higher legal Council should choose judges supervising all steps of elections without the interference of the Minister of justice.
- The committee is to decide on any obstacles to the election campaigning.
- All runners are entitled to all sorts of electoral campaigning; holding conferences, distributing electoral publications, holding marches, hanging fliers...etc. Fifth: In the field of Economic Reform:
The Muslim Brotherhood believes in the economic system stemming from Islam as a religion and a complete, comprehensive way of life that stresses freedom of economic activity, individual role in that activity and respects multiple property which basically means private property, given that it shoulders social tasks. It also respects state property, such as utilities and vital establishments.
Based on the above, we work on encouraging the private sector through well-studied privatization programs, characterized by fair evaluation of public projects to be privatized, coupled with total transparency. This should in line with preserving the complete rights of laborers. We also believe in the necessity of establishing giant public, given thorough economic, funding and technical feasibility studies, doubled with a public participation in informing about them, studying and authorizing them.
The Muslim Brotherhood also believes in the necessity of cooperation with rest of world countries for the best interest of humanity. Therefore, we adopt the liberation of trade open door policy as major style in dealing with other countries, in light of mutual dependence and the revolution of information and communication. But we are against hegemony or subordination sought by the current globalization movement. So, we will work on enlarging the positive sides of general Agreement on Trade and Tariff (GATT) and World Trade Organization (WTO), and limiting their negative sides.
Based on the above, we think economic reform is built on the following:
- Legal money is considered the spine of life and must be preserved, but usury as a source of funding or profit must be banned and criminalized.
- Every able person must work to earn a living.
- Discovering the sources of natural riches and making use of them, in light of preserving the surrounding environment to achieve sustainable development.
- Respect of properties, especially public ones.
- Organizing financial dealings and accuracy of monetary affairs by following sound monetary, financial, tax, and development policies.
- Application of the social (security) system and helping the unemployed find suitable jobs.
- Stressing the state's responsibility to protect the economic system.
- Banning power abuse and illegal formation of fortunes.
According to these general principles, we basically believe in:
- Working to enlarge production, starting with necessities, then complementary products and accessories, through encouraging investments, granting facilities and exemptions to each level (of production), according to its importance. Food, clothing, and tools of production should top the list of highest exemptions.
- Economical consumption, in general, linking it to production and banning all forms of extravagance through:
- Reconsidering government spending, especially ceremonies, parties...etc.
- Monitoring of (government) supported goods to ensure the are received by those who deserve them, in a bid to rationalize process.
- Rationalizing the consumption of auxiliary and extravagant goods.
- Encouragement of saving by all possible means; for example
- Raising saving awareness among individuals and enlightening them with the rights of future generations.
- Deploying various ways of investment in legal fields, according to the priorities of production needs and consumption necessities.
- Using social funds in establishing small projects to be owned by workers.
- Finding a system for marketing the products of these projects internally and facilitating the measures of exporting to Arab, African and foreign markets.
- Linking small and meddle complementary industries with big industries to ensure their support, development and marketing of their products. Supporting the authority of quality control to ensure commitment to international standards as a guarantee for continuous marketing of the products, through:
- Encouraging Egyptian and Arab capital to invest in that field.
- Linking the educational policy to the plan of establishing these projects.
- Linking the policy of scientific research to solving the problems of this sector and developing it.
- Encouraging inventions in this field.
- Enabling a comprehensive and effective agricultural development, both horizontal and vertical, providing the necessary funding for modernizing the agricultural process, especially for small farmers, in addition to creating chances of cooperative marketing and supporting the requirements of agricultural production and developing agricultural manufacturing.
- Encouraging exports, supporting export industries and working on opening new markets, along with rationalizing imports without hindering the requirements of balanced development for the sectors of national economy and the basic needs of food stuff and medicines.
- Giving up dependence on foreign loans to fund the saving gap (difference between needed investment and national saving), via encouraging direct Arab and Islamic investment first, then that from the rest of the word.
- Toughening penalties for crimes of financial and economic corruption; such as deceiving, fraud, monopoly, power abuse, unlawfully seizing state lands or funds, tax evasion, commissions, bribes and all other forms of corruption.Sixth: in the field of Education & Scientific Research:
Education and scientific research are both the means of any hoped for progress. Therefore, developed countries generously provide funding, training, preparation, establishing buildings, libraries, playgrounds, labs and apparatuses for their generations willing to learn. As we want catch up (with that kind of progress), we should care about education; teachers, curricula, and educational establishments. So we seek to achieve the following:
- Improving the conditions of teachers, both professionally and financially, in bid to enable teachers to live on their salaries, stop giving private lessons. This way, teachers can restore their social and literary standing and their past role as examples and educators for generations.
- Developing teaching curricula in the faculties of Education and Teachers' Institutes, providing continuous training programs to qualify a teacher loving his job and feeling how great it is.
- Raising the rate of funding allocated to education from the national income.
- Working seriously on treating the problem of illiteracy on a decisive and scientific way.
- Solidifying religious values, moral principles, lofty features and (the sense of) belonging to the nation.
- Focusing on physical and military training and equipping schools with playgrounds and sports' apparatuses.
- Following the system of regional education that provides students with information on their particular region and increases their ability to use its potential to the maximum.
- Developing curricula in a way that achieves Egyptian renaissance and preserves the Egyptian identity its cornerstones, in line with the foundations of the nation, its cultural personality and its civilized heritage, Taking due interest in modern sciences, such as computers and genetics.
- Raising the rate of funds allocated to scientific research.
- Liberating the fields of scientific research from the control of bureaucracy.
- Increasing scientific missions abroad.
- Providing dignified life and convenient material levels for scientific researchers.
- Providing scientific potentials; labs, libraries, apparatuses and chemicals.
- Accurate counting of finished scientific researches and studies, in a bid to implement them and studies, in bid to implement them to prevent repetition.
- Putting a plan for each research institute so as to encourage teamwork among workers and to establish complete scientific schools in various specializations.
- Increasing scientific experiences via conference and mutual visits among teachers and researchers at the internal and international levels.
- Linking scientific research to production and innovating the method of specialized research projects funded by production units.
- Solving the problems of society whether in the economic, social or educational fields through scientific research and doing away with ready made imported solutions that do not conform to our conditions.Seventh: In the field of Al-Azhar Reform:
Al- Azhar is a unique institution worldwide that Allah bestowed on Egypt. It was established on the basis of studying, spreading and protecting the knowledge of Noble Qur'an, Shariah and Arabic language in Egypt Scholars from across the Muslim world have graduated there from and become the best ambassadors from Egypt to their peoples. In addition, Al-Azhar has played an historic, glorious role in raising the flag of jihad and leading Mujahideen to confront foreign occupiers targeting Egypt. It has also raised the sound of right in the face of unjust rulers and supported the needy and weak. All that made it a target for students from across the Islamic word, earned it the respect and sanctity of Muslims from Indonesia to Morocco. This makes it a duty on those who love Egypt and Islam to seek the support and strength of Al-Azhar, to grant it freedom of thought, movement and call, in addition to providing it with money and men capable of carrying out its responsibility and achieving its message.
Based on the above, we seek the following.
- wide establishment of kutabs (Qura'nic schools) and nurseries, focusing on memorizing the Noble Qur'an, parts of Prophetic tradition and learning righteous morals.
- Supporting Al-Azhar institutes with qualified honest teachers and applying up to-date curricula.
- Supporting Shariah colleges in a way that qualifies graduates for call (to Allah), teaching, issuing Fatwas (religious edicts) and jurisprudence.
- Giving due interest to Al-Azhar civil colleges in a bid to have physicians, engineers, accountants and callers that call for righteousness through their words and behavior, as originally targeted.
- Reformation of higher committee for scholars through election. The grand imam of Al-Azhar must be elected by members of scholars committee and the presidential decree must be limited to naming the one they choose.
- Returning Muslim Waqfs to an authority independent from the state's budget, spending their revenues for the purposes which were meant, especially Al-Azhar ratios and the salaries of its Sheikhs, scholars and students.
- Freedom of callers, Imams and preachers in explaining the principles of Islam, its Shariah, values and organization of peoples' lives and solving their problems, without interference from the administrative authority unless need arises from Islamic moral and teachings.Eighth: In the Field of combating Poverty:
The phenomenon of poverty has spread in our society.
According to available statistics, more than 50% of the people are poor. Thus, we should seek a serious treatment of this phenomenon, via providing the basic foundations of a dignified life for our people, especially the poor and low income classes. These foundations include:
- Suitable house wherein the necessities of a dignified life (lights, pure water, sanitary and enough room for family members) are available.
- Balanced food at suitable prices and quantity and quality preserving sound body building.
- Suitable clothing that covers the body and preserves man's dignity and humanity.
- Medical services that provide real medical care (doctors and medicines) within the means of such classes.
- Real and free educational services that work on raising the cultural level of these classes.Ninth: In the field of Social Reform:
The Muslim Brotherhood believes social peace and integrity to be necessary for any progress. This requires serious and continuous work to eliminate poverty and limit its effects. It also requires eliminating random (living) areas, fighting addiction and drugs, raising the (living) areas, fighting addiction and drugs, raising the (living) standard of marginalized classes and bridging the pap in distributing income and fortunes, via Zakat (Alms) institutions within a comprehensive Islamic system.
Therefore, we think social reform is represented in the following:
- Working to encourage the spirit of being religious in the society.
- Preserving public manners and enhancing the institutions of the social system.
- Supporting the institutions of civic society and non-governmental organizations (NGOs).
- Family care especially women, youth and children.
- Combating crimes and corruption.
- Reviving the system of (Islamic) Reward (Hisbah), according to controls and terms set by the law.
- Establishing social justice and providing job opportunities.
- General health care.
- Reforming education.
- Organizing tourism, especially recreational, cultural and educational tourism.
- Preparing the unemployed professionally and providing them with suitable jobs.
- Preserving the entity of legal family as a base for society, a home for children and a suitable environment, a home for children and a suitable environment for upbringing, coupled with fighting attempts to break the family by propagating illegal relations in all their forms.Tenth: In the field of women:
Woman represents half of the society. She is in charge of raising generations (men and women). No doubt then she deserves Paradise to be under her feet. She is a pure creature, dignified by Allah Almighty, when He says:
"and indeed we have honored the children of Adam."
She is a reasonable and sound creature that addressed by divine talk in Qur'an and prophetic tradition just like man. She is under obligation jus like him, bearing full legal and criminal responsibility just like him. Her financial status is not limited all her financial dealings and decisions are legal, without the consent of a father, a husband, a brother or any one else. The area of man's superiority over his wife is limited to issues of matrimonial partnership his wife is limited to issues of matrimonial partnership and it stems from loving, mercy and consultation, in return for responsibilities shouldered by man.
Therefore, we believe:
- Woman is entitled to participate in parliamentary elections and the likes.
- Women is entitled to be a member of parliament or the likes in a frame that preserves her decency, neutrality and dignity.
- Woman is entitled to hold pubic posts, except for (the post of) Grand Imam or presiding over the state, given our present conditions.
- Eliminating illiteracy spreading among women, especially in the countryside.
- Education curricula should include material conforming with woman's nature, role and needs.
- Preserving women everywhere; in means of transportation and work place.Eleventh: In the Field of Coptic Brothers:
We assure that our position towards Coptic brothers is one of principle, stable and a duty on all Muslims, according to texts of noble Qur'an and Prophetic tradition, words and deeds. This position is summed in the following points:
- Copts are a part of the fabric of the Egyptian society. They are partners of the nation and destiny Our rights are theirs, our duties are theirs.
- Freedom of belief and worship for all is respected. Cooperation in that serves the society and is in the best interest of citizens is an obligation for all.
- Keenness on the brotherhood spirit that has been linking all Egyptians (Muslims and Copts) for centuries, spreading the foundations of love and harmony among them, so as to enable the nation to work comprehensively for building the future.
- Emphasizing national unity, not allowing any activity that leads to inciting feelings of religious sedition or ethnic fanaticism among Egyptians.Twelfth: In the Cultural Field:
The Muslim Brotherhood believes in the necessity that our culture stems from its Islamic sources to develop the individual and society. This requires serious reform of the pillars and means of current culture from papers, magazines, radio and television, so as to establish its material and work on Islamic values and principles to educate the individual and deepen these values and principles into his spirit. This protects the individual from ignorance and westernization and does away with messing up with moral principles and falling into sins and trivialities. These media means must be strengthened to be able to face (the challenges of) open skies era, foreign satellite channels and high speed communications and information.
Based on the above, cultural reform, as see it, is represented in the following:
- Sound formation of the educational system to broaden the mid.
- Sound formation of printed, audio and visual media, to alleviate the feelings and deepens the sense of belonging.
- Freedom of (writing) books and supporting publishing.
- Encouraging forums, conference and exhibitions.
- Encouraging scientific and conference tourism.
- Reconsidering the role of the Higher council for Culture and Higher Council for Islamic Affairs and all other cultural institutions to guarantee the hoped for cultural reform.
- Rationalizing cinema and theater houses to be in conformity with Islam's principles and values.Thirteenth: In the Field of foreign Policy:
There are circles of foreign policy work on which will achieve public interest. These are:
- Arab circle which requires. Supporting and activating the Arab league, activating the mechanisms of Arab work such as Arab Defense, joint Arab Market and Economic unity.
- African circle.. Egypt is African country, linked to the countries of Nile Basin and other African states with developments relations Egypt is keen on. On top of the list is the Sudan with which we have historic, strategic and economic relations that are highly important. Therefore, Sudan must be given great priority, especially in this stag, based on deliberations of great effects on the Egyptian and Arab national security.
- Islamic circle.. This is the belief circle, interest in which is represented in seeking the Islamic unity. This requires putting programs and mechanisms for opening up to the Islamic world, including Turkey, Iran, Malaysia and Indonesia.
- Finally comes the international circle: Egypt has several relations with world countries. She is also a member of the international family and organizations. Henceforth, she seeks the enforcement of international laws and conventions works on ridding the international organizations from the guardianship of superpowers. She also seeks adopting mechanisms for international stability on just basis.Fourteenth: Most Important National Causes (Palestine& Iraq):
Moving from the pivotal and strategic role, the historic and cultural weight of Egypt, along with her responsibility towards its sisterly Arab and Muslim states and toward Islam and its causes, its causes, we would like to emphasize the following:
- Resistance against the Anglo-American and Zionist occupiers of Arab and Muslim lands is a legal right and a duty imposed (on people under occupation) by Islam and guaranteed by international laws and treaties. Arab and Muslim governments and peoples, Egypt on top of the list should extend a helping and supportive hand to Palestinian and Iraqi peoples till they overcome their crises.
- The Us project aims at kneeling down the Arab and Muslim nations, subjecting them to its cultural, social and economic dominance. It also aims at tearing our area apart and redrawing its map, in accordance with the interests of the US administration and the Zionist entity, on the one hand. On the other hand, it aims at threatening the stability of the region. This necessitates working on (reaching) solidarity and integration among Arab and Muslim countries, economically, culturally and militarily. Today’s world is one of big entities let alone the great challenges facing our nation
- The Zionist project aims-with the full support of the US administration – at finishing off the Palestinian resistance, breaking the will of the Palestinian people, establishing a fragile demilitarized non-sovereign Palestinian state aborting the refugees right to return (to their homes), expanding the establishment of racial colonies (including the separation wall), and making Jerusalem an eternal capital!!! Force being the only language the Zionist enemy grasps, the Muslim Brotherhood believes in the necessity of preserving the unity of Palestinian factions and that these factions do not subject the Palestinian people to facing the crimes of assassination, liquidation and barbaric massacres perpetrated by the Zionist enemy.
- As regards the Arab position, the Zionist enemy still seeks more normalization of relations with Arab states, establishing a Middle Eastern market for its products, in light of overwhelming military, scientific and technological superiority till its old dream of establishing (greater Israel), from the Nile to the Euphrates. Therefore, we think it imperative to stop all forms of normalization and relations with it, considering boycotting its products of US goods as the least to be done.
- Concerning Iraq, the Muslim Brotherhood stresses that by invading and occupying Iraq (and Afghanistan before), the US administration has attacked a brotherly Arab state and returned the world to the law of the jungle through challenging and going over international laws and conventions. So, the Brotherhood troops from Iraq immediately and leaving the Iraqi people to run their affairs on their own.
- The unity of the Iraq immediately and leaving the Iraqi people to run their affairs on their own.
- The unity of the Iraqi people is an issue related to the national security of the Arab and Muslim region. Based on this, preserving the unity of Shiites, Sunnis, Arabs and kurds, is a great duty that requires all Arab rulers and leaders to do their best to achieve.
- Threatening to strike Syria and Iran or other Arab regimes, along with threatening to export the Iraq of model to the rest of the Arab states as a means of intimidation, so as to submit to the demands of the US administration, is refused at all levels. This requires, working on giving peoples a role in making their present, determining a role in making their present, determining their destiny, returning their rights and awakening their wills, so as to be able to live up to the challenges and risks surrounding them.
These are the major lines of comprehensive, possible and hoped for reform in the various walks of our political, legal, social, economic and cultural life. They represent the minimum level required for developing our society, in bid for Egypt to resume its suitable position and to be able to play its role.
We ask Allah for this to be beneficial for our nation, make it purely for His sake and only Allah’s satisfaction and blessing we seek.
This initiative was declared at a press conference held in the Egyptian Press syndicate, Cairo.
Maa ashobani min hasanatin faminallah...wamaa ashobani min sayyiatin famin nafsi (segala yg baik tu dari Allah dan yg buruk tu dari diriku)
posted by scouser at 8:23 PM
Ibu bapa perlu jadi pendengar lebih baikOleh Prof Madya Umi Kalthum Ngah
"AZAM! Berapa kali mak pesan, kalau hendak main komputer, habiskan kerja sekolah dulu," jerit Halimah dari ruang tamu.
Anak remajanya itu masih asyik bermain game sambil memberikan mimik muka seperti tidak berpuas hati dengan leteran ibunya. Kata-kata ibunya tidak berbekas.
Halimah terjegat di muka pintu bilik anaknya sambil bercekak pinggang.
"Apa mak kata tadi? Azam tak dengarkah cakap mak?" katanya dalam nada menjerit.
"Ya lah!" Azam mendengus, sambil menghempaskan kerusinya tanda protes dan mengambil buku dari beg sekolah dengan rakus. Air mukanya masam mencuka.
Kebanyakan kita sebagai ibu bapa pernah menghadapi keadaan seumpama dengan anak remaja.
Jadi kita harus melihat kembali kesan daripada tindakan itu. Kita akan berasa kesan atau akibat yang akan timbul daripada perbalahan berpanjangan sebegini.
Setiap kali berhadapan dengan sikap ibu ayah begini akan membuatkan perasaan remaja tertekan. Mereka melonggokkan perasaan negatif dalam diri mereka seperti memberontak, memendam rasa, hilang rasa hormat kepada orang tua dan bosan. Akhirnya menciptakan jurang pemisah di antara anak dan ibu bapa.
Remaja akan lebih suka berdiam diri apabila berada di rumah. Mereka sebaliknya, lebih suka berbual dan mencurahkan rasa hati kepada rakan.
Dalam pada itu ibu bapa pula akan marah, kecewa dan beranggapan anaknya degil serta tidak mahu mendengar kata.
Akibatnya anak remajanya akan lebih suka menghabiskan banyak masanya di luar rumah.
Suasana hubungan dalam keluarga juga menjadi tegang dan bermasam muka. Bayangkan sekiranya si anak remaja lebih suka menghabiskan masanya di luar rumah disebabkan tidak tahan mendengar leteran orang tuanya.
Keseluruhannya nanti, perhubungan sesebuah keluarga itu tidak lagi intim. Bertambah buruk lagi jika si anak remaja tersilap memilih kawan. Mendapat pengaruh kurang baik dan terjebak dengan kegiatan tidak diingini. Akhirnya, sesebuah keluarga itu akan menjadi kucar kacir.
Adakah suasana ini yang kita mahukan? Kita perlu menyantuni remaja dengan mengubah cara dan pendekatan, terutama apabila berbicara dengan mereka.
Tips berbicara dengan remaja seperti berikut mungkin boleh dijadikan panduan.1. Berikan teladan yang baik sebagai seorang insan.
Bahasa perbuatan memberikan kesan yang lebih mendalam kepada jiwa anak remaja daripada bahasa lisan. Bagaimana Halimah mahu Azam berbicara dengannya secara lemah lembut dan penyantun sekiranya dia sendiri terjerit-terjerit?
Mengapa remaja harus mengikut kata anda jika anda sendiri cakap tidak serupa bikin? Jadinya, lebih kerap kita buat seperti kita cakap, lebih hormat remaja kepada kita sebagai orang tuanya.2. Cuba jadi pendengar yang baik.
Kita sering mendengar saranan ini 'dengar dan pasang telinga betul-betul apa yang ingin diperkatakan remaja anda'
. Jika ibu bapa mengubah sikap dan berusaha untuk menjadi pendengar yang baik, tidak mustahil pula sebagai timbal balik, anak akan mahu mendengar kata-kata kita.
Apabila remaja membuka mulut, berikanlah dia peluang untuk menghabiskan segala isi hatinya. Dengar dengan teliti. Tenung tepat ke matanya. Biar dia tahu yang kita benar-benar mengambil berat apa yang dikatakannya. Beri mereka peluang walaupun kadang kala mereka seolah-olah tidak pandai memilih masa yang sesuai berbuat demikian.
Contohnya, remaja hendak bertanya sesuatu ketika kita baru pulang atau sedang membaca akhbar. Terimalah mereka dengan hati dan perasaan terbuka.
Biar kesan yang bakal dirasakannya pada saat itu adalah dia begitu dihargai dan bertuah sebab mahu diajak berkongsi sesuatu.
Memang sukar untuk melakukan ini. Tetapi masih belum terlambat. Belum cuba belum tahu!3. Masa berkualiti.
Ramai ibu bapa hanya sibuk untuk memastikan anaknya berada di jalan yang benar dan melakukan perkara yang betul saja.
Ibu bapa terlupa aspek pembinaan ikatan hubungan atau pertalian erat berkualiti di antara ibu bapa dan anak.
Tiada yang lebih diingini oleh remaja daripada ibu bapanya, melainkan mahu bersama-sama meluangkan waktu dengan mereka.
Mereka mahu ibu bapa benar-benar bersikap ingin mengambil tahu akan segala saat suka duka yang dihadapinya.
Kita selalu fikir masa berkualiti hanya untuk anak kecil. Kita terlupa remaja juga memerlukannya.
Berusaha untuk menjadi orang yang diperlukan atau tempat remaja boleh meminta pertolongan.
Sebagai ibu bapa, ada banyak perkara yang boleh kita bantu dan cuba selesaikan untuk remaja.
Maa ashobani min hasanatin faminallah...wamaa ashobani min sayyiatin famin nafsi (segala yg baik tu dari Allah dan yg buruk tu dari diriku)
posted by scouser at 8:44 PM
Bismillahirrahmanirrahim. Segala puji bagi Allah, Tuhan sekalian alam kerana limpah dan kurniaNya masih lagi diberi peluang untuk meneruskan hidup di bumi yg fana ini. Kali ni mmg tersangat lama gile tak menulis. Byk betul taukeed yg aku letak…hehehe. Lately ni bz melampau. Sejak balik India, keja datang menimbun. Maklumlah,terbiar selama seminggu. Insya Allah kali ni aku nak ckp dua perkara. First,ckp pasal result SPM and second pasal trip aku kat India.
Alhamdulillah,keputusan SPM setiap tahun makin meningkat. Tak dinafikan remaja zaman sekarang tahap intelektualnya tinggi. Setakat straight A’s tu mmg melambak la. Mungkin tak lama lagi straight A1’s melambak giler. Tak mungkin juga straight 100% markah exams. Memandangkan semalam aku out station ke Seremban, so aku gerak lewat sket la. Kebetulan lepas balik dari jogging, tv on. Aku tgk rancangan MHI jap. Derang temuramah 4 org pelajar cemerlang SPM.
Salah satu soalan menarik yg aku dgr daripada hos rancangan pada sorang pelajar cemerlang tu ialah pengajian apa yg dia akan ambil di peringkat universiti nanti. Pelajar tu bekas student Alam Shah. Dia jawab (lebih kurang la),"Saya pada mulanya bercita-cita ingin menjadi engineer. Tapi bila saya tgk job market skrg ni electrical and electronics engineer semakin diperlukan. Jadi, saya rasa saya akan ambil course Electrical and Electronics Engineering"
Aku agak terkejut dgn jawapan budak tu. Kejap je la aku terkejut. Pastu aku gelak la puas2. Amende punya jawapan daaa…Nak menunjukkan dia tu pandai dan berwawasan, tp secara tak langsung ada benda yg dia jahil lagi rupanya. Apa tak sama ke Engineer dan Electrical and Electronics Engineer? Tapi aku rasa aku paham apa yg dia nampak. Mungkin dia nampak Engineer ni as civil engineer kot. Secara general mmg ramai remaja yg nampak engineer ni keja dia bina bangunan dan buat jambatan je. Sbb tu ada yg nak jd mechanical engineer, tp dia sebut nak jd mechanic. Kira remaja Malaysia sebenarnya masih belum boleh dikatakan intelek lagi. Belum matang lagi.
Boleh jd sistem pendidikan di Malaysia yg masih berorientasikan peperiksaan je yg menyebabkan mentaliti remaja di Malaysia tidak pergi jauh. Masih spoonfed sampai la waktu dah bekerja nanti. Kebanyakan remaja Malaysia bkn memahami konsep apa yg derang belaja, tp derang ni hafal konsep dlm subjek yg drang belaja. Aku sendiri alami masalah tu masa memula study kat USA dulu. Aku tak leh nak adapt dgn sistem di USA. Kalau kat mesia, diberi lab manual. Boleh baca dulu sblm masuk lab untuk buat eksperimen. Tp kat USA tak sangat. Ada sesetengah lab tu, tutor dia terangkan kat situ gak prosedur eksperimen. Then, buat eksperimen tu. Sometimes ko tak paham pun apa objektif eksperimen tu. Tapi sebenarnya berkait dgn apa yg kita belaja. Cuma sbb tak disentuh dlm text book, kita jd blur dan samar2.
Soalan slps tu plak, "Kenapa adik pilih bidang tu?"
Mmg tidak menghairankan aku kalau jawapan budak2 tu sama. Such as gaji besar, peluang kerjaya yg cerah,etc. Basically materialistik punya alasan la. Aku terpiki sejenak bila drang jawab soalan cam tu. Sedarkah drang apa kesannya kalau hala tuju hidup menghala ke arah kebendaan? Bila dah terlalu materialistik tu la rasuah mudah terjadi. Kecintaan kepada negara sudah tiada sbb peluang pekerjaan lebih luas di negara2 maju. Sikap mementingkan diri makin berleluasa kerana hanya memandang nilai2 materialistik. Mmg kita boleh cakap bebudak tak matang lagi. Drang mana pandang sume tu. Abis tu, org dewasa skrg ni adakah masih memandang ke arah materialistik? I see no different brother. Mungkin ada beberapa remaja yg boleh kita ubah paradigmanya supaya matlamat bekerja tu untuk menegakkan syariah Islamiah, memakmurkan bumi, membantu manusia sejagat, dan sebagainya.
Aku risau dgn keadaan masyarakat skrg. Jarang dpt kita jumpa umat Islam yg betul2 bekerja ikhlas kerana mahu berbakti pada org lain. Kebanyakannya bekerja utk menambahkan kekayaan. Kalau cam tu apa bezanya kita dgn org Cina yg bkn muslim tu? Lebih dahsyat lagi, takut ada yg mula tak percaya pada Allah plak nanti. Kebanyakan kaum Cina pun dah ada yg free thinker. Kesimpulannya, masih banyak kerja-kerja dakwah yg perlu kita lakukan. Namun jgnlah kita merasa resah gelisah kerana peluang untuk menyampaikan dakwah tu sebenarnya semakin luas. Semakin canggih teknologi zaman kini semakin luas ruang lingkup dakwah kita.Humayun Tomb
Okla,kita tinggal bab tu jap. Aku nak citer pengalaman masa kat India plak. Aku naik flight MAS dari KLIA jam 6.00 ptg waktu mesia. Aku sampai di Mumbai, India lebih kurang jam 9.30 malam waktu India. Mak aih, sedih betul airport dia. Standard airport Subang. Aku rasa Subang lagi bersih dan ok lagi la sbb aku tak penah nampak plak ada anjing liar kat dlm airport melainkan kat Mumbai ni. Mlm tu dah letih sangat,kitorang tak pegi jenjalan memana. Tapi suasana di India ni sungguh dhaif. Kat Mumbai tu, derang boleh berniaga makanan kat tgh2 divider jalan. Pelik tul, tak penah aku jumpa. India ni dah terlalu padat dgn penduduk. Esok pagi tu kitorang jenjalan sekitar Mumbai. Kitorang sewa tourist guide dan minta dia bawa ke seluruh Mumbai. Antara tempat yg kitorang lawat ialah Stesen Ketapi Mumbai. Stesen ketapi ni dibina zaman British dulu. So, Mumbai ni mmg kaya dengan seni bina British. Kat hujung Mumbai tu dibina satu arch yg dinamakan Gateway to India. Dulu2, masa pedagang nak masuk India melalui jalan laut, drang akan masuk melalui persisiran pantai Mumbai. Kitorang sempat gak la tgk rumah pelakon2 Hindustan. Takde yg menarik sangat pun. Banglo biasa je. Kain kat India mmg murah2 belaka. Malam tu kitorang bertolak ke Nagpur plak.
Nagpur ni la tempat untuk test tower TNB ni. Kitorang sampai kat Nagpur dlm jam 10.00 mlm. Tensen gak aku dibuatnya sbb flight delay hampir sejam. Bila dah dapat bilik kat hotel, kebetulan plak bilik aku betul2 atas disco. Mak aih, merana gak la aku sbb muzik yg kuat dari disko tu. Bergegar bilik aku. Abis tv bilik aku rosak sbb gegaran muzik yg kuat. Mangkuk tingkat betul keling ni. Dah la miskin, tak ingat Tuhan ke? Esok tu kitorang dibawa ke tempat test tu akan dibuat. Waduh,sepanjang perjalanan tu tak sampai hati aku tgk rakyat India yg terlalu miskin. Utk hari pertama tu kitorang just buat calibration untuk load cells yg akan digunakan utk tower test. Calibration ni sekejap je, pastu kitorang round2 bandar Nagpur. Takde apa sangat yg menarik kalau nak dibandingkan dgn Mumbai. Hari kedua dan ketiga kitorang spend the whole day utk tower testing. Alhamdulillah segalanya berjalan lancar. Malam pada hari ketiga kitorang di Nagpur, kami bertolak ke New Delhi plak. Gate of India
New Delhi plak cuacanya agak sejuk. Kena pakai dua lapis gak la. Alhamdulillah, New Delhi ni agak tersusun bandar dia. Tapi still ada lagi penduduk yg taraf hidupnya sungguh menyedihkan. Kitorang sampai di New Delhi dlm jam 12.00 tgh malam. Esok pagi tu kitorang bertolak ke Agra, bandar terletaknya Taj Mahal. Kitorang lalu beberapa lokasi menarik spt Humayun’s Tomb, President’s Palace, dan Gate of India. On the way ke Taj Mahal tu, jalan dia tak selebar highway kat mesia. Even unta bawa gandum pun jalan kat atas jalan. Mmg sesak dibuatnya. Sepanjang perjalanan ke Agra tu ada je manusia. Mmg India ni dah sesak abis. Pastu macam2 ragam manusia ada. Ada yg bela beruang, pastu kalau kita amik gambar beruang tu, kita kena bayar. Mcm2 cara nak menipu yg derang gunakan.
Masa sampai kat Taj Mahal pun cam tu gak. Ada je yg paksa beli barang derang. Aduh,pening kepala aku. Mmg cantik la Taj Mahal ni. Dibuat dari marble dan campuran batu2 berharga yg lain. Taj Mahal ni dibina pada abad ke 17 oleh Shah Jahan. Basically Taj Mahal ni kubur isteri dia je yg bernama Mumtaz Khan. Dibina selama 22 tahun dengan menggunakan 23 000 org pekerja. Kos Taj Mahal pada waktu ia dibina ialah RM 1.4 juta. Kalau skrg ni lagi mahal la kot. Taj Mahal dibina lengkap dgn kemudahan masjid, rumah rehat, dan rumah pekerja. Keturunan pekerja pembinaan Taj Mahal diberi keistimewaan untuk menguruskan kerja2 pembaik pulihan Taj Mahal. Kilang tidak dibenarkan dibina dalam radius 2 km. Sebarang pencemaran tidak terdapat di Agra. Sungainya pun bersih berbanding sungai2 di New Delhi dan Mumbai. Sungai2 kat Mumbai dan New Delhi mmg tak boleh diselamatkan dah. Tak mengalir sbb pekat dgn kotoran yg berwarna hitam. Berbau busuk dan penuh sampah. Gateway of India
Tak lama lepas Taj Mahal siap, Shah Jahan nak bina satu lagi bangunan yg serupa dgn Taj Mahal untuk diri dia plak. Anak lelaki dia cepat2 tangkap dan kurung dia dalam Agra Fort sbb dia dah terlalu banyak menggunakan wang rakyat utk kepentingannya sendiri. Tapak bangunan tu masih lagi wujud sampai sekarang. Pengajaran yg boleh kita ambil, jgn la kita menyalah gunakan amanah yg telah org berikan kepada kita. Jika sebagai raja, hendaklah kita mengutamakan kebajikan rakyat terlebih dahulu. Jgn lah kita terlalu bermewah-mewah yg mana sumbernya bukan hasil titik peluh kita pun.
Esoknya aku pulang semula ke Malaysia setelah hampir seminggu berada di India. Byk pengajaran yg dpt aku pelajari ketika berada di India. India merupakan sebuah negara yg kaya dgn sumber. Malah, rakyatnya mempunyai purata IQ yg tertinggi di dunia. Tp mengapa India masih dikategorikan sbg negara miskin? Aku yakin jawapannya ialah penyelewengan yg dilakukan oleh pemimpin. India mempunyai teknologi nuclear, tp rakyatnya masih merempat. Ke mana perginya wang hasil kemajuan teknologi mereka? Rakyat India hidup dalam keadaan serba dhaif. Byk keluarga yg hanya tidur di tepi2 jalan dlm kesejukan. Rumah mereka hanya berlapikkan kain sahaja. Maka tidak hairanlah kalau drang buang hajat dan kencing tepi jalan je. Aku mmg dah lali la tgk derang buat perangai cam tu masa kat India. Bila keta berenti je, mmg ramai la yg berkerumun untuk minta sedekah. Bkn tanak bagi, kalau bagi mmg abis barang yg kita ada ditariknya.
Apabila kehidupan mereka diabaikan oleh pemimpin negara, maka rakyat pun hidup mengikut cara yg mereka suka. Sbb tu rakyat India ni ada yg kurang ajar, ada yg tak berdisiplin, tak menepati janji, dan tidak bersistem. Jalan raya dia mmg hiruk pikuk la. Driving pun dah tak ikut lane. Main sedap je nak jalan kat lane mana. Basikal dan penjalan kaki pun main redah je tengah jalan tu. Traffic light mmg dah tak berguna langsung la.
Alhamdulillah, perjalanan ke India tidak sia2. Benarlah kata Allah supaya kita berjalan dan melihat kesan2 daripada umat yg terdahulu. Contohnya, New Delhi adalah gabungan 8 buah bandar yg mana 6 daripadanya diasaskan oleh kerajaan Islam. Namun, di manakah umat Islam di India. Umat Islam di India cuma 15% sahaja (lebih kurang 150 juta org). Kadang2 terasa pilu di hati mengenangkan kehebatan umat Islam hilang ditelan zaman. Segah-gah Taj Mahal dan beberapa lagi kota besar milik Kerajaan Islam Moghul, akhirnya tinggal sunyi sepi sahaja. Adakah kita mahu menjadi seperti mereka? Jikalau tidak, kembalilah kepada Allah dan RasulNya.
Maa ashobani min hasanatin faminallah...wamaa ashobani min sayyiatin famin nafsi (segala yg baik tu dari Allah dan yg buruk tu dari diriku)
posted by scouser at 11:51 PM
In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Gracious
"Say if you love Allah then follow me so Allah Loves you". (3, 31)
Praise be to Allah, peace and blessing be upon His Prophet Muhammad and those who follow his way
The world popular protest of insult of some Western media towards Islam's prophet Muhammad, peace be upon him, reflected the significance of unified stances of the Islamic states. The Muslim Brotherhood which firmly believes in the Islamic unity especially in face of challenges accepts the sincere call of Mr. el-Kady Hussein, the Leader of the Pakistani Islamic Movement. In addition, the group appeals to all Arab and Islamic nations along with free people over the world who respect sacred objects and protect freedom of faith to stage a stand on Friday, March 3rd to express, in a civilized manner, their fury, protest, and condemnation of attempts of deformation of Prophet Muhammad. In this respect we would like to assert:
Prophet Muhammad, PBUH, occupies an unchallenged position in hearts of Muslims. For Muhammad is the seal of honorable prophets and the herald of the magnificent message of Islam to all mankind. He is the ultimate example and model in all aspects. Therefore, believing in him is fundamental. Muslim's faith is scarred unless Muhammad's love takes precedence in heart. Accordingly, Muslims are ordained to love, glorify, and defend the noble prophet.
If Islam regards freedom: of faith, ritual, criticism and _expression, gathering, and peaceful protest, a fundamental right, it does not mean mockery or desecration or disparage of things held sacred.
The cartoons published in the Danish newspaper and bandied by others is an episode of a serial that targets Islam. I see the underhanded Zionist provocation behind these acts. The Danish newspaper were not to dare scorn the feelings of 1, 5 billion of Muslims unless it witnesses the inability and passiveness of Arab and Islamic nations.
This severe attack sparked the enthusiasm of Muslims over the world to defend Islam and Prophet Muhammad PBUH. As long as advocates of truth are there and ready to sacrifice all precious things, the outcome of this mean and repulsive conspiracy will turn back on its intriguers and their proponents.
Those people should sense that their vile attempts will fail and will adversely affect them. Therefore, we call on Muslims to boycott their products. We also urge Islamic and Arab governments to take crucial measures against the Danish administration via suspending diplomatic relations, lodging formal protests to international organizations, continuing protest and boycott till laws that incriminating desecration of sacred symbols are enacted. Furthermore, prompt endeavors to publicize Islam and the honorable Prophet Muhammad should be triggered.
Allah is He Who Guides to the right path
Muhammad Akef, the Muslim Brotherhood's Chairman
posted by scouser at 7:01 PM